Recognized as the safest, most effective skin whitening compound, this ingredient is not to be mistaken for Beta Arbutin (commonly known as Arbutin). Most manufacturers use Arbutin, because it is far less expensive and easier to source than Alpha Arbutin. A patented ingredient manufactured in Switzerland, Alpha Arbutin has shown extraordinarily rapid and safe skin whitening properties and, therefore, is used extensively in our portfolio.
Origin: Hydrothermal Ocean Vents
In the deepest abyssal zone, exceptional microorganisms live at 3000 meters below the surface. In this very hostile environment where life conditions are unbearable, Abyssine® 657 is a real survival molecule. Synthesized by a microorganism located in hydrothermal deep vents, it protects against chemical, mechanical and UVB damage, while improving skin clarity and resilience.
Origin: South America
Touted as a super-food by Brazilian natives for hundreds of years, açai contains more than 10 times the antioxidant power of grapes and twice the power of blueberries. It offers superb antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-mutagenic capacity to the skin.
Actiflow is a dynamic natural extract from yeast. Abundantly rich in polysaccharides and Vitamin P, it helps to firm and moisturizes the delicate skin around the eyes, thus restoring elasticity. Actiflow is scientifically proven to reduce bags and puffiness by 67% in 28 days or less. Additionally, in a controlled study, 75% of users showed a lightening of dark circles and a reduction of hyperpigmentation.
Origin: United States
Actiplus blends the clinically-proven, long-term action of botanicals with the immediate effects of alpha hydroxy acids (AHA), and meadowsweet extract, a naturally rich source of salicylic acid (which is a clinical beta hydroxy acid or BHA). Actiplus also contains hydrocotyl extract which is clinically proven to strengthen the skin, promote connective tissue vascularization and increase collagen synthesis. Studies have shown that alpha and beta hydroxy acids are versatile anti-aging ingredients, which provide immediate exfoliation and long-term skin benefits. In a clinical study, an Actiplus solution was compared with a salicylic acid control solution (at maximum allowed concentrations); the Actiplus solution yielded a 27.8% increase in cell renewal versus the 21.2% increase with the salicylic acid solution.
Perhaps the most notable naturally-sourced skin whitening compound, Giga White brings the clinically-tested, fully documented benefits of seven innovative plant extracts together in a potent delivery system developed in Switzerland. Used heavily in W-SERIES, this ingredient enhances the efficacy of other active principles and ensures an even, luminous skin tone.
Marine derivatives are revolutionizing skincare and the highly pure algae extract found in Antarticine rises as the epitome of this evolution. This highly active compound has clearly demonstrated effective against fine lines and wrinkles and has demonstrated a solid 68% improvement in both size and number of such skin contour flaws. Used at high concentrations in the our skin care Collections, this ingredient delivers refined marine energy to the cells with unsurpassed safety.
Origin: Mediterranean Sea
Our plankton composition is derived from a multitude of related species from the Mediterranean region. This compounds contains a variety of important amino acids (Arginine, Glycine, Lysine, Alanine, Glutamic acid, Aspartic acid, Leucine, Valine, Serine, Threonine, Proline, Isoleucine, Histidine, Thyrosine, Phenylalanine, Taurine, Methionine, Cysteine/Cystine) and lipids (Fatty acid esters, Triglycerides, Free fatty acids, Phospholipids, Hydrocarbons). The particular species included in the extract are as follows: larva states, Actimula sp., Pilidium sp., Nauplios sp., Zoeas sp., Veliger sp., Ochiopluteus sp., Various copepods, Natantia sp., Podon sp., Ewadne sp., Phyllirhoe sp., Pelagothuria bouvieri, Filodocides, Tifloscoledides, Tomopterides, Chaetoceros compressus, Chaetoceros affinis, Chaetoceros decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, Rhizosolenia alata, Rhizosolenia imbr shrubsolei, Skeletonema sp., Cryptomonas sp., Nitzschia delicatissima, Nitzschia seriata, Ceratium furca, Ceratium massiliense, Ceratium candelabrum, Guinardia flaccida, Hemiaulus hauckii, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Asterionella sp., Goniodoma polyedricum, Bacteriastrum delicatulum. Its Glucides offer moisturizing benefits while oligoelements and iodine offer lipolitic action. Oligoelements and free amino acids offer tissue restructuring, making plankton a star nutrient.
Origin: Hawaiian Islands
An innovative ingredient from biofermentation of a particular strain of red marine algae (Ahnfeltia concinna) along the intertidal regions of Hawaii, APT® benefits the skin in several ways: (1) it increases skin hydration by 138% in 28 days, restoring an elegant, moist, youthful texture to the skin; (2) it enhances the smoothness of the skin; (3) it produces a 33% reduction in surface lines in 28 days; (3) it enhances skin firmness by expanding to 20% in 4 weeks; (4) it provides superb soothing properties; and (5) it increases cell turnover. The presence of proteoglycans, polypeptides, peptides, glycosamino-containing polysaccharides and stereo isomers of Dgalactopyranose, as well as high concentrations of high concentrations of L-serine (an amino acid active in structuring the skin’s natural moisturizing factor) and Lproline, can well explain the unsurprisingly powerful therapeutic benefits of this compound.
A well-touted cosmetic peptide (Acetyl Hexapeptide-3), Argireline has demonstrated solidly that it can drastically reduce the size and depth of facial wrinkles, especially on the forehead and around the eyes. This very specific sequence was discovered within a combinatorial library of hexapeptides and has shown to inhibit the formation of the SNARE complex and catecholamine release. Clinical testing of SNARE complex modulation and modulation of catecholamine in chromaffin cells demonstrates the activity of this well recognized peptide.
BioWhite is a combination of extracts of scutellaria, white mulberry, saxifrage and grape, each with a potent depigmentation action, working in synergy to block the formation of melanin. This stabilized plant complex is one of the most effective principles available, as it can inhibit tyrosinase activity by 97%, a figure greater than that associated with Kojic Acid and Hydroquinone.
Origin: United States
Buddleja (Buddleja davidii) is a butterfly bush brought to Europe from China in the 19th century. The 100% organic cultivation method used to produce the extract used in our formulations guarantees presence of no pesticides, mineral fertilizers or herbicides of any kind. Buddleja has shwon to offer significant DNS protective efficacy through an in-vitro test. Its additional features include antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. In particular, Buddjela has proven to reduce DNA fragmentation of keratinocytes induced by UVB radiation by 71% at a concentration of only 2.5%, thus protecting the skin's cells from UV damage.
Ceramide IIIA supports the natural protective layer of the skin, while improving skin tone and clarity. It has also been shown to inhibit melanin synthesis in vitro without cytotoxicity. Our Ceramide IIIA is produced using a patented bio-fermentation process. In contrast to various pseudo-ceramides available commercially, the ceramides produced according to this process have the same stereo-chemical configuration as the ceramides present in the human skin. This unique configuration is crucial for optimal performance.
African Baobab Tree Leaves
Origin: Sub-Saharan Africa
Purified mucilages from the leaves of the African baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L) which lives in arid savannah regions of sub-Saharan Africa provide unprecedented moisture support, while energizing the skin tone. As this tree can reach an age of 5,000 - 6,000 years, it is called the African "Tree of Life". To survive dry seasons, the baobab tree has become an expert in water conservation. Its massive trunk, up to 10 meters in diameter, is a water reservoir and its leaves contain mucilages that bind water tenaciously. The leaves of Adansonia digitata L. contain other components beneficial to skin: minerals, vitamins, proteins and flavonoids. This active reinforces the skin’s defense barrier, which also improves the skin’s sensorial properties, especially suppleness, softness and luster. A noticeable tightening effect is also achieved.
Dermican is a high-technology tetrapeptide that stimulates the synthesis of both the collagen fibers themselves and of a small proteoglycan called Lumican (which plays a vital role in structuring the collagen fibrils in the extra-cellular matrix into densely packed, functional fibers). This ingredient has been scientifically shown to improve the thickness and firmness of the skin. Dermican clearly shows an anti-aging effect, acting both on skin structure and mechanical properties. Clinical studies have recorded an increase of Lumican synthesis by 58% and a boost in the gene coding for collagen I by 125%.
Eyeliss combines three active molecules to provide superb anti-aging support in the eye contour:
a) Hesperidin methyl chalcone: decreases the capillary permeability by 25%;
b) Dipeptide Valyl-Tryptophane: increases lymphatic circulation (85% inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme);
c) Lipopeptide Pal-GQPR: improves firmness and elasticity, while decreasing inflammatory phenomena (33% regulation of UV-induced IL6 level produced by keratinocytes).
Combating the effect of tiredness and hypertension, as well as the natural effects of aging, which contribute to the formation of bags under the eyes, Eyeliss is an outstanding anti-aging arsenal used heavily in our portfolio.
Eyeseryl is an advanced tetrapeptide that has anti-oedema properties and is clinically proven to reduce puffiness in the eye contour. In a clinical study, after only 15 days, 95% of volunteers experienced a significant reduction in puffiness around the eyes. Eyeseryl helps prevent signs of age by minimizing liquid retention, known to cause puffy eye bags, while enhancing the skin's elasticity and smoothness. The result is a decongestion of the skin. This active also improves circulation around the delicate skin in the eye area to help improve the appearance of under-eye dark circles.
Origin: Amazonian Rainforest
An outstanding osmo-regulating system from the rare Amazonian plant maurera fluviatilis, Fluxhydran® is a polyvalent moisturizer with immediate and long-lasting hydro-regulation, hydro-captation and hydro-retention effects.
Origin: United States
RETexture is a scientific active that includes 1% of a pure ester form of Tretinoin that works in a way similar to Retin-A, but without the irritation associated with Tretinoin. Available without a prescription, this "Pro Tretinoin" delivery form significantly reduces the irritation potential, without diminishing the cosmetic treatment potential. RETexture minimizes sunlight-induced aging and combats acne effectively. Clinical studies have noted a reduction in skin roughness and dryness alongside maximized radiance, softness, firmness, tightness and elasticity, within two weeks.
Origin: United States
GRANT-X combines the elegance and filling properties of an advanced silicone elastomer with a synergistic array of actives to relax the skin by reversible inactivation of nerve electric signal transmission by ion channels (a different mechanism than Botox®), leading to a more relaxed, natural skin appearance. The natural botanical extracts within the GRANT-X complex have been bio-transformed to increase their bio-availability to the skin for a more youthful appearance. This active has shown clinically to improve the appearance of facial fine line and wrinkles by more than 50%.
As an association of two matrikines, Haloxyl reinforces firmness and tone of the eye area. Chrysin and N-hydroxysuccinimide activate the elimination of blood-originated pigments responsible for dark circles and local inflammation. A clinical study of 22 female volunteers showed a 72% rate of success in achieving a significant decrease in the red and blue colours of dark circles around the eyes.
Hyaluronic Acid is present abundantly in youthful skin and provides maximal below-surface hydration. It protects youthful skin features, smoothes the skin’s appearance and unconditionally magnifies the absorption of other active principles. This vital ingredient was recently praised by the BBC as the single most important compound that contributes to the astonishing youthfulness of the very old in the small town of Yuyao in Japan.
Lanablue's potency comes from the resources of the Cascadia region in North America from an extract of endemic cyanophyceae harvested in wild conditions. Its high content of B vitamins, amino acids and specific pigments have placed this rich-blue-colored ingredient in a respectable position in our skin care collections. Lanablue acts as a natural retinoid on the keratinocytes differenciation thus smoothing and densifying the epidermis.
Origin: Marigold Flowers of Varied Origins
As a carotenoid found in dark leafy vegetables and colourful fruits, Lutein provides antioxidant and nutritional support to the skin. Additionally, Lutein filters high-energy, blue wavelengths of light from the visible spectrum by as much as 90%. Blue light is in both indoor lighting and sunlight and is believed to induce oxidative stress and possible free-radical damage in the skin. Blue light is in the visible spectrum and must not be mistaken with UVA and UVB (which are present in the invisible spectrum) that can be effectively blocked by sunscreen agents.
Origin: Tomatoes of Varied Origins
Lycopene is an open-chain unsaturated carotenoid that imparts red colour to tomatoes, guava, pink grapefruit and rosehips. It is a superb antioxidant that protects cells from environmental oxidative damage, while imparting a fresh glow to the skin.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP)
Origin: Eastern Europe
This highly refined, exceptionally stable Vitamin C derivative provides superior antioxidant properties and is also a very effective active for brightening and balancing the skin tone. Perhaps the rarest and most costly form of Vitamin C, this derivative shows far superior absorbability and utilization by the skin as compared to L-Ascorbic Acid (the most basic, most abundant and least costly form of Vitamin C) that has been incorporated into many respected formulations worldwide. L-Ascorbic Acid is highly unstable and can actually cause further oxidation of the skin. Offering virtually no risk of oxidation, MAP brings the most scientifically advanced form of Vitamin C to many of our formulations.
Matrixyl 3000 contains two Matrikines, Pal-GHK and PAl-GQPR which act in synergy to restore and maintain the skin's youthful appearance. As messenger molecules, Matrikines are capable of regulating cell activities. They interact with specific receptors to activate genes involved in the process of extracellular matrix renewal and cell proliferation, resulting in a visible anti-wrinkle activity. This key advance in active skincare technology decreases wrinkle density by 39%, decreases volume of wrinkles by 18.5%, decreases surface occupied by deep wrinkles by 44.9% and stimulates fibroblast molecules in the skin.
This advanced peptide composition is a biomimetic peptide antagonist specific of the a-MSH. Biomimetic peptides are identical to the skin’s peptides, and are acting on the physiological mechanisms of the skin with a high specificity. This active competes against the natural ligand (a-MSH) on its specific receptor (MC1-R) by preventing any further activation of the tyrosinase, and thus blocking melanin synthesis. Tyrosinase inhibition reduces the formation of unwanted pigmentation, allowing for the control over skin tone and brown spots. This active represents the first scientifically-explained skin whitening compound in the world of skincare.
Our special honey extract from France is a hydro-regulating complex that contains extraordinarily high concentrations of flower sugars, amino acids and mineral elements. It helps maintain hydration, while restructuring, softening and smoothing the epidermis.
This natural peptide composition is a patented complex of oligopeptides obtained by the biotransformation of native proteins from the seeds of Hibiscus esculentus L. (okra). These botanical peptides combat wrinkles in a way similar to Botox®, by inhibiting the mechanical factors responsible for the appearance of expression lines on the face. This active works biologically to retard the aging of cells (anti-radical) and mechanically to inhibit facial muscle contraction, thus preventing the formation of horizontal and vertical frown lines, crow's feet around the eyes and naso-labial lines around the mouth. As a natural alternative to Botox®, this active has shown clinically to reduce the depth of wrinkles by over 26% in 3 weeks.
PerfectionPeptide P3 is a liposomal preparation of a tripeptide product which activates the regeneration of the skin. PerfectionPeptide P3 stimulates the natural desquamation process of the skin, thus leading to a gentle peeling effect. A brighter, smoother and more even skin complexion is created. The skin is rejuvenated and looks younger. This peptide improves skin smoothness by 12%, improves hydration by 20%, reduces wrinkle depth by 10 %, decreases epidermal turnover time by 10% and improves skin clarity.
Arbutin PML (5%)
Arbutin PML (5%) is a specific kind of liposome composed by several concentric bilayers of phospholipids that protect the Arbutin molecule from degradation and allow its diffusion throughout the upper layers of the epidermis in a controlled and sustained release manner. This system represents the initiation of the RETARD concept in cosmetic technology, maximizing the potential effect in time. Arbutin shows remarkable inhibitory effects on melanin formation and skin beautifying effects. It causes no irritation, which allows continuous use for a long period of time at high concentrations to produce satisfactory skin-lightening effects.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate in PML
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate PML is a specific kind of liposome composed by several concentric bilayers of phospholipids that contain magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and have the capacity to prevent unwanted hydrolysis of the molecule and also to favour the diffusion of the molecule into the prickle and basal layers of the epidermis. This principle has shown a much greater skin-lightening effect whilst maintaining a sustained moisturizing profile.
Microalga Dunaliella Salina
Our biotechnologically-derived extract of microalgae Dunaliella Salina is a powerful cocktail of molecules that have the ability to reload the skin with new energy. Due to external stress factors, the mitochondria of skin cells begin to degrade with age. This degradation leads to formation of wrinkles and the skin becomes atonic and brittle, with reduced radiance. This microalga protects the cellular structures of the skin and stimulates the mitochondria, thereby increasing cell turnover and improving the overall complexion.
Origin: Kalahari Desert
This Swiss active is based on a highly-purified extract of a watermelon which has its origin in the Kalahari Desert. Under extreme conditions, this watermelon develops its own defense system by producing compatible solutes against drought, heat and UV radiation. Abundantly rich in its synergistic composition of vitamins, carbohydrates and such amino acids as L-Citrulline, this extract offers unprecedented protection of DNA, the skin's fibroblasts and keratinocytes, thereby decreasing erythema as a result of UV radiation.
Microalga Nannochlorposis Oculara
This unique algae-based skin tightener offers fast-acting, long-lasting skin tightening by providing both immediate anti-wrinkle activity and, at the same time, strengthening the skin's connective tissue. This ingredient is a highly purified extract of microalga Nannochlorposis oculara, produced biotechnologically and combined with a balanced fraction of polysaccharides. A special fermentation process utilizing photo-bioreactors create optimal growth conditions to guarantee the highest quality and pureness of this algae extract. Abundantly rich in amino acids, Vitamins C and B12, and polysaccharides, Pepha Tight also protects cells from oxidative stress and stimulates the formation of collagen. These benefits are confirmed by clinical studies performed in Switzerland. Open clinical studies.
A highly active complex of specially purified soy and rice peptides and biotechnologically derived yeast protein, Regu-Age effectively addresses dark circles and puffiness around the eyes by (1) improving microcirculation; (2) improving the integrity of collagen and elastin bundle; and (3) reducing the effect of free radicals on the skin. Blood retention in the upper layers of the skin, an insufficient oxygen supply, inflammation processes followed by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated proteolytic enzyme activity due to UV radiation result in degeneration of already weakened skin, leading to puffiness, dark circles, wrinkles and slackness. Regu-Age’s superb effect on the hemodynamic properties of blood significantly improve oxygen supply of skin tissue, as clinically demonstrated. Furthermore, Regu-Age inhibits elastase and collagenase and corrects the appearance of puffiness, dark circles and wrinkles around the eyes.
Regu®-Seb is a solution containing polyphenol-rich fractions of the fruits of the North American saw palmetto and South American sesame seeds in a Moroccan argan oil base. Its perfectly balanced polyphenol formula, consisting mostly of lignans and phytosterols, helps to inhibit the formation of 5-alpha-reductase, which is responsible for the overproduction of sebum. Regu®-Seb controls and reduces sebum production, especially in the T-zone area of the face. In particular, this active decreases the severity of Seborrheic Dermatitis by up to 46% and normalizes the secretion of sebum.
Ridulisse C is an active ingredient rich in oligopeptides purified from soybeans that favour “weaving” the dermal system and thereby preserve its organization. Ridulisse C exerts a biological action that revitalizes the metabolic activity of fibroblasts (cells responsible for the dermal synthesis of collagen I and III fibers) and of proteoglycans involved in extracellular matrix interactions. Ridulisse C restores the original density, resistance and elasticity of the dermis, as well as the suppleness and firmness of the skin. This active increases the synthesis of collagen I by 175%, increases the synthesis of collagen III by 209% and stimulates decorin synthesis by 31%.
Sebonormine® brings together multiple patents to remedy and control excess sebum. Its strong triple action is based on tannic polyphenols. Also rich in gallic and ellagic tannins, this active:
(a) Reduces keratinocyte synthesis of 5-alpha-reductase, an enzyme responsible for the production of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), an androgen hormone that stimulates the sebaceous glands;
(b) Limits the excretion of surface sebum with rich gallic and ellagic tannins, while significantly reducing skin pore size;
(c) Prevents the proliferation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, the main bacteria responsible for irritation and formation of acne. This concentrated plant-based active restores a fine skin with a regular grain, eliminating the aesthetic and psychological discomfort associated with shiny skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis.
Serilesine® is a hexapeptide designed to improve cell adhesion, thus reducing the loss of skin firmness, dryness and yellowing of skin tone. Serilesine® fights degeneration of the dermo-epidermal junction caused by aging, increasing the keratinocytes and fibroblasts. It stimulates the synthesis of Laminin-5, which helps in the maintaining cohesion between the dermis and the epidermis, improving elasticity and tonicity of the skin. It also increases cell proliferation and induces an increase in dermis density for a smoother skin appearance.
The age-fighting octapeptide, SNAP-8, is an elongation of the famous hexapeptide Argireline. The study of the basic biochemical mechanisms of anti-wrinkle activity led to the revolutionary hexapeptide. Snap-8 reduces the appearance of wrinkle depth on the face caused by the contraction of muscles, especially in the forehead and around the eyes. Snap-8 is a safer and milder alternative to Botox®. Based on clinical tests, SNAP-8 reduces the appearance of wrinkles by up to 63.16 %, improves overall skin tone by 58.5%, enhances overall skin smoothness by 50.7% and increases skin hydration by 54.6%.
An extraordinarily powerful active peptide introduced in mid-2005, this active compound fully mimics Waglerin 1, a peptide that is found in the venom of the Temple Viper, Tropidolaemus wagleri. This highly controversial – yet astonishingly effective – principle brings the anti-aging concept of injection-based treatments to an outstanding cosmetic formulation found in the Y-Series. Effective, painless and convenient, the Y-Series takes pride in bringing this most innovative, age-killing ingredient to our clients.
This peptide is designed to stimulate the skin's natural mechanism to produce collagen. It actively compensates for any collagen deficit in the skin and makes the skin appear younger. Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 is an alternative to collagen injection, promotes 350% improvement compared to placebo, stimulates Collagen synthesis, enhances skin firmness, increases moisture levels and is clinically proven to be safe and effective.
This skin-lightening amino acid is present abundantly in the human body. A recent discovery by a renowned German laboratory has found that this ingredient offers skin whitening properties that are in line with historically unsafe ingredients such as Kojic Acid and Hydroquinone, none of which are ever used in any of our products. This completely safe alternative is incorporated in above standard concentrations in W-SERIES.
TEGO® Smooth Complex
TEGO® Smooth Complex is a unique blend of low and high molecular weight components that reduce skin roughness by enhancing the removal of old squamae. The result is smoother and more radiant skin. Due to its unique low molecular weight scleroglucan, TEGO® Smooth Complex offers additional skin-soothing and anti-inflammatory functions, making it an ideal active not only for targeting dry and aging skin but also for sun protection and repair. With its superb water-binding capacity, this active optimizes short and long term skin moisture content by increasing the skin’s natural ability to retain moisture.
Origin: North Canadian Prairies
Having shown better skin whitening and dark spot reduction efficacy than hydroquinone and arbutin, this highly innovative natural ingredient is extracted from wild crafted Field Dock (from the Rumex species) grown in the North Canadian Prairies. This patented formula has strong inhibitory effects on the tyrosinase enzyme, leading to a reduction of pigments such as melanin (tan) and hemoglobin (erythema). The result is elimination of brown-red tones in the skin color and clinical studies that directly compare Tyrostat with Hydroquinone and Arbutin have shown significantly stronger results with only three weeks of application.
Vitanol® is an active similar to Retinol (a vitamin A derivative). Vitanol® is rich in galactomannans from alfalfa. Its behavior is similar to that of Retinol towards both dermal and epidermal cells. It favours the renewal of the epidermis by regulating keratinocyte differentiation. It protects and repairs the dermis by stimulating the synthesis of collagen I and by reducing the activity of metalloproteinases responsible for elastic fiber destruction. In clinical studies, Vitanol® exhibited a significant anti-wrinkle effect in 71% of the volunteers and smoothed microrelief in 76% of the cases. Clinical trials have shown that Vitanol® stimulates the synthesis of collagen I by 296%, reduces the synthesis of MMP-1 induced by UV by 73% and decreases the surface occupied by deep wrinkles by 26%.
Proprietary Swiss Mountain Plants
This brightening cocktail brings the clinically-tested, fully documented benefits of seven innovative plant extracts together in a potent delivery system developed in Switzerland. Used heavily in R-SERIES, this ingredient enhances the efficacy of other active principles and ensures optimal brightness is restored to the skin.
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